I wanted to emulate MIPS guests on my Proxmox hypervisor so that I could do some security research on router firmware. Unfortunately, Proxmox has customised some of the QEMU packages and their dependencies, which makes it difficult to install the standard Debian
qemu-system-mips package. In particular, Proxmox provides its own
pve-libspice-server1 package which conflicts with the
libspice-server1 package that vanilla QEMU depends on, so attempting to install it will complain:
Some packages could not be installed. The following packages have unmet dependencies: qemu-system-mips : Depends: libspice-server1 (>= 0.12.5)
To solve this, we need to build a modified version of the package from source.
Building qemu-system-mips for Proxmox
We’ll build this package inside a Debian 9 container, rather than building it on the Proxmox host directly. This will allow us to avoid conflicts with Proxmox packages during
In Proxmox’s web interface, select the storage you use to hold container templates, then on the Content page, hit the Templates button. Download the Debian 9 template.
Create a new container that uses this Debian 9 template. You’ll need to give it at least 4GB of total memory (RAM + swap) for the build to complete successfully.
Start up the new container and SSH into it. If you are unable to connect to the container by SSH, you may need to run
pct enter YOUR-CONTAINER-ID from Proxmox and run
service ssh restart to kick it into life.
/etc/apt/sources.list to add deb-src entries for each of the Debian repositories:
deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian stretch main contrib deb-src http://ftp.debian.org/debian stretch-updates main contrib deb-src http://security.debian.org stretch/updates main contrib
Now fetch those new repositories and get the container up to date:
apt-get update && apt-get dist-upgrade -y
Grab the build dependencies for qemu and some other utilities:
apt-get build-dep qemu -y apt-get install git -y
git clone -b proxmox-compat https://github.com/thenickdude/qemu-debian.git
Now enter that directory and build QEMU:
cd qemu-debian debian/rules debian/control dpkg-buildpackage -uc -us -b
If successful, this will result in a series of .deb packages in the parent directory. Copy these to a temporary directory on Proxmox.
Installing the new packages
To install qemu-system-mips on Proxmox, you need to install the
qemu-system-common packages that you built, and their dependencies:
# Install dependencies from the standard repos: apt-get install ipxe-qemu libbluetooth3 libbrlapi0.6 libcacard0 libfdt1 libvdeplug2 # Install the .deb files you built: dpkg -i qemu-system-common_2.8+dfsg-6+deb9u2_amd64.deb qemu-system-mips_2.8+dfsg-6+deb9u2_amd64.deb
Creating a Debian MIPS virtual machine
We’ll create a Debian Wheezy MIPS virtual machine that we can run with
qemu-system-mips. First, let’s set up networking. We’ll use qemu-bridge-helper to bridge the VM’s network to Proxmox’s. To enable support for that, run these commands in Proxmox:
# Allow all users to start up the bridge as root: chmod u+s /usr/lib/qemu/qemu-bridge-helper # Allow us to connect to Proxmox's default bridge: mkdir /etc/qemu echo "allow vmbr0" > /etc/qemu/bridge.conf
vmlinux-3.2.0-4-4kc-malta (any of the *-4kc-malta kernels can be used) from this website and put them into the same directory as each other:
Create a script called “startvm” in that directory with this content:
#!/usr/bin/env bash qemu-system-mips -m 256M -M malta -kernel vmlinux-3.2.0-4-4kc-malta -hda debian_wheezy_mips_standard.qcow2 -append "root=/dev/sda1 console=ttyS0" -nographic -vga none -serial mon:stdio -net nic -net bridge,br=vmbr0 # To emulate a CPU compatible with Ubiquiti's Nanobeam AC (and lots of their other products), add "-cpu 34Kf"
Make that script executable:
chmod u+x startvm
Now you can start up your new Debian Wheezy VM by just running that script on Proxmox:
The default password for the root account is just “root”. There is also an account called “user” with password “user”.
Upgrading to Debian Jessie
You can upgrade this VM to the newer Debian Jessie release like so:
# Grab newer signing keys: apt-get install debian-keyring debian-archive-keyring -y # Update installed packages to the newest Wheezy versions: apt-get update apt-get dist-upgrade -y # Switch to Jessie repositories: sed -i 's/wheezy/jessie/g' /etc/apt/sources.list # Upgrade to Jessie: apt-get update apt-get dist-upgrade -y shutdown -r now
Note that since this MIPS CPU is emulated in software, this will take hours.
You can then upgrade from Jessie to Stretch using the same procedure (just replace the
sed command with
sed -i 's/jessie/stretch/g' /etc/apt/sources.list.
During boot, you’ll see a bunch of warnings relating to ipv6 symbol mismatches, and ipv6 won’t work:
[ 14.312000] ipv6: Unknown symbol __ip4_datagram_connect (err 0) [ 14.336000] ipv6: Unknown symbol ip_idents_reserve (err 0) [ 14.336000] ipv6: disagrees about version of symbol tcp_alloc_md5sig_pool [ 14.336000] ipv6: Unknown symbol tcp_alloc_md5sig_pool (err -22)
I think this is because the ipv6 support is provided by a loadable module, which was not compiled at the same time as the kernel supplied by aurel32.
You can fix this by copying Debian’s official kernel and initrd (vmlinux-4.9.0-3-4kc-malta and initrd.img-4.9.0-3-4kc-malta for Stretch) out of the VM’s
/boot directory to the host, and editing the startvm script to use those instead. Also add a “nokaslr” option to the “append” string to fix the fatal error “Initramfs unpacking failed: uncompression error” when loading the initrd.
#!/usr/bin/env bash qemu-system-mips -m 256M -M malta -kernel vmlinux-4.9.0-3-4kc-malta -initrd initrd.img-4.9.0-3-4kc-malta -hda debian_wheezy_mips_standard.qcow2 -append "root=/dev/sda1 console=ttyS0 nokaslr" -nographic -vga none -serial mon:stdio -net nic -net bridge,br=vmbr0
This also fixes a problem where the VM reboots instead of halting upon shutdown.