Installing macOS Catalina 10.15 on Proxmox 6 using Clover

I’ve now created a new tutorial that uses OpenCore instead of Clover, and it fixes a lot of problems. I recommend using the new tutorial for all new builds

This tutorial for installing macOS Catalina has been adapted for Proxmox 6 from Kholia’s GitHub project for installing into vanilla KVM. There is more documentation there which will help out with enabling extra features and diagnosing problems!

If you run into trouble, also check out the comment section of my previous tutorial on Mojave – these two versions are very similar so the problems and solutions are likely to be the same.


I’ll assume you already have Proxmox 6 installed. You also need a real Mac available in order to fetch the OSK key.

Your Proxmox host computer’s CPU must support SSE 4.2, so for Intel your CPU must be at least as new as Nehalem, which was the first CPU generation to bear the “Core” i5/i7 branding. Older CPUs will cause the finder to repeatedly crash after installation completes (with an Illegal Instruction exception in the graphics code).

Apparently modern AMD CPUs also support SSE 4.2 and can be used with this guide without any modification (maybe Bulldozer and certainly Ryzen), but I haven’t tested this myself.

First step: Create an installation ISO

Download and run in a terminal to download the Catalina recovery image from the Apple software distribution server (this can be run on Linux, Proxmox, or on a Mac):

This results in a ~500MB “BaseSystem.dmg” file in the current directory. Convert that dmg into an “iso” like so if you’re building this on macOS:

hdiutil convert BaseSystem.dmg -format RdWr -o Catalina-installer.iso
mv Catalina-installer.iso.img Catalina-installer.iso

Or like so if you’re building this on Linux:

# Install the dmg2img package and...
dmg2img BaseSystem.dmg Catalina-installer.iso

# Or use qemu-img from the qemu-utils package to do it instead:
qemu-img convert BaseSystem.dmg -O raw Catalina-installer.iso

The result is actually a raw disk image, not a true ISO, but Proxmox has better tools for picking and re-using ISO images than disk images. Upload the “ISO” to your Proxmox server’s ISO store (typically /var/lib/vz/template/iso).

If you don’t have an Internet connection available to Catalina during installation you’ll need to build an offline installer instead. Building the offline installer requires you to have a Mac, here are the instructions.

Prepare a Clover image

We’ll be using Clover as a bootloader for Catalina.

Download this Clover disk image (that I built using kholia’s build script from Clover r5107 on Fedora 27), unpack it, and upload it to Proxmox’s ISO store at /var/lib/vz/template/iso. Although it has a .iso file extension, this is actually a hard disk image.

Fetch the OSK authentication key

macOS checks that it is running on real Mac hardware, and refuses to boot on third-party hardware. You can get around this by reading an authentication key out of your real Mac hardware (the OSK key). Save the first block of C code from this page as smc_read.c. In a command prompt, change into the same directory as that file and run:

xcode-select --install # If you don't already have gcc
gcc -o smc_read smc_read.c -framework IOKit

It’ll print out the 64 character OSK for you. Make a note of it.

Every Mac uses the same OSK, so don’t be surprised that it doesn’t look like a random string!

Create the VM

From the Proxmox web UI, create a new virtual machine as shown below.

In the Options page for the VM, ensure that “use tablet for pointer” is set to “Yes”.

In the Hardware page for the VM, add a second DVD drive at IDE0, set it to use your Catalina-installer.iso.

Don’t try to start the VM just yet. First, SSH into your Proxmox server so we can make some edits to the configuration files.

Edit /etc/pve/qemu-server/YOUR-VM-ID-HERE.conf (with nano or vim). Add this line, being sure to substitute the OSK you extracted earlier into the right place:

args: -device isa-applesmc,osk="THE-OSK-YOU-EXTRACTED-GOES-HERE" -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2

We’re telling macOS that the CPU is Penryn (it doesn’t seem to like booting otherwise), but we’re enabling all the new CPU features found in Nehalem which macOS will require, plus some optional features found in later generations (AVX/AES). A USB keyboard is added here because macOS doesn’t support QEMU’s default PS/2 keyboard.

Find the line that define the two “ISOs” (ide0 and ide2), and remove the “,media=cdrom” part from them. Add “,cache=unsafe” in its place. This will treat these as hard disks rather than DVD drives.

Save your changes, return to the Options tab, and change the boot order to put IDE2 (the Clover image) first. Your final VM configuration file should resemble this:

args: -device isa-applesmc,osk="..." -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
balloon: 0
bios: ovmf
boot: cdn
bootdisk: ide2
cores: 4
cpu: Penryn
efidisk0: vms:vm-144-disk-1,size=128K
ide0: isos:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe
ide2: isos:iso/clover-r5107.iso,cache=unsafe
machine: q35
memory: 4096
name: catalina
net0: vmxnet3=xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
numa: 0
ostype: other
sata0: vms:vm-144-disk-0,cache=unsafe,size=64G
smbios1: uuid=xxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxx
sockets: 1
vga: vmware

Configure Proxmox

On Proxmox, run “echo 1 > /sys/module/kvm/parameters/ignore_msrs” to avoid a bootloop during macOS boot. To make this change persist across Proxmox reboots, run:

echo "options kvm ignore_msrs=Y" >> /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf && update-initramfs -k all -u

You must now installpatched version of Proxmox’s OVMF library in order to be able to boot Catalina.

Install Catalina

Now start up your VM.

Go to the Console tab, quickly hit Escape or F2 at the Proxmox logo to enter the OVMF configuration. If your keyboard doesn’t work, leave the Console tab, stop the VM, start the VM, then re-enter the console tab.

Follow the steps above to set the screen resolution to 1920×1080, press F10 to save your changes, and “reset” to apply the new settings (not “continue”). This step is required to avoid scrambled graphics on boot and a hang (Clover resolution must match OVMF resolution, or else the Apple logo will be off-centre and the progress bar will be smeared across the screen, resulting in a lockup).

Note that in future you’ll find that when initially started, your VM doesn’t properly apply the the 1920×1080 screen resolution until you hit “Restart Computer” in Clover when the Clover menu appears (or “Reset” on the VM). You’ll notice this happening when the “Proxmox” logo fills a large area of the screen on boot due to the low resolution.

It should now boot into Clover.

Press enter to boot the “Boot macOS Install from macOS Base System” entry and the installer should appear. Choose your language.

Our virtual hard drive needs to be erased/formatted before we can install to it, so select the Disk Utility option. Follow the steps below to format the disk:

Now we’re ready to begin installation!

After the first stage of installation, the VM should reboot itself and automatically continue installation by booting from the hard drive, then reboot itself a second time and automatically boot from “filevault prebooter”. Note that an Internet connection is required during installation, as the installer needs to download Catalina.

Answer the initial install questions, and you’ll be logged on! (Note that you’ll probably want to hold off on logging into your iCloud account until you’ve configured your SMBIOS to your liking in Clover Configurator)

It works!

Make the Clover install permanent

We’re currently booting using Clover from the attached Clover ISO. Let’s install that to the hard drive instead. Pop open Terminal and run “diskutil list” to see what drives we have available.

Use “sudo dd if=<source> of=<dest>” to copy the “EFI” partition from the Clover CD and overwrite the EFI partition on the hard disk. The Clover CD is the small disk with the “linux filesystem” on it, and the main hard disk is the one with the large Apple_APFS “Container” partition on it.

In my case these EFI partitions ended up being called disk1s1 and disk2s1 respectively, so I ran “sudo dd if=/dev/disk1s1 of=/dev/disk2s1” (N.B. if you get these names wrong, you will overwrite the wrong disk and you’ll have to start the installation over again!).

Now shut down the VM, and remove both the Clover and the Catalina installer drives from the Hardware tab. On the Options tab, edit the boot order to place SATA0 as the first disk. Boot up. If everything went well, you should see the Clover boot menu, and you can select “Boot macOS from Main” to boot Catalina.

Sleep management

I found that I was unable to wake Catalina from sleep using my mouse or keyboard. You can either disable system sleep in Catalina’s Energy Saver settings to avoid this, or you can manually wake the VM up from sleep from Proxmox by running:

qm monitor YOUR-VM-ID-HERE 

“Prohibited” sign on boot

On a regular Hackintosh this is typically a sign that the boot drive can’t be read, but that situation is difficult to encounter with this VM setup. Nevertheless, I receive a “prohibited” sign during boot in perhaps 1 out of 20 system boots at random (maybe a timing bug?) If this happens, just hit “reset” for the VM to retry  (no need to stop and start).

If you get it persistently, something is going wrong with the boot. You can boot macOS in “verbose” mode by hitting space on the macOS option in Clover and ticking the verbose option. This’ll give you a log during booting that can narrow down when the problem occurs.

Editing your Clover/EFI settings

You can use the Clover Configurator tool (Global Edition) to edit your Clover “config.plist” configuration file, which is stored in the hard drive’s EFI partition. This tool should mount the EFI partition for you. If you want to mount it without using Clover Configurator, first check the device name of the EFI partition in the terminal:

~$ diskutil list
/dev/disk0 (external):
0: GUID_partition_scheme 512.1 GB disk0
1: EFI EFI 209.7 MB disk0s1
2: Apple_HFS Main 511.8 GB disk0s2

Then you can mount it like so:

sudo mkdir /Volumes/EFI
sudo mount -t msdos /dev/disk0s1 /Volumes/EFI

Note that if you upgrade Clover in the future, you must untick the “AudioDxe” driver during installation, because this causes Clover to hang.

Video performance

Because there is no guest video acceleration available for macOS, video performance is poor.

In Google Chrome in the guest you will need to toggle off the setting to “use hardware acceleration when available” to improve issues with elements not being drawn or flickering (especially video). Safari may be a better choice.

macOS’s built in “Screen Sharing” feature offers dramatically better framerates and latency than Proxmox’s browser-based VNC console, so if you have a real Mac to act as a viewing console, you can enable that in the VM’s “Sharing” settings and connect to the VM using the Screen Sharing app from your Mac instead:

Apparently Screen Sharing is also compatible with VNC clients like RealVNC, so you should be able to connect to it from Linux or Windows consoles using RealVNC.

The real magic bullet for video performance is to pass through a compatible video card using PCIe passthrough (though note that Catalina does not support most NVidia cards). This offers near-native performance. You can read more about how I’m using PCIe passthrough on my own installation here.

USB passthrough

Since I want to use this as my primary computer, I want to use a USB keyboard and mouse plugged directly into Proxmox, rather than sending my input through the web VNC console.

Proxmox has good documentation for USB passthrough. Basically, run “qm monitor YOUR-VM-ID-HERE”, then “info usbhost” to get a list of the USB devices connected to Proxmox:

qm> info usbhost
Bus 3, Addr 12, Port 6, Speed 480 Mb/s
Class 00: USB device 8564:1000, Mass Storage Device
Bus 3, Addr 11, Port 5.4, Speed 12 Mb/s
Class 00: USB device 04d9:0141, USB Keyboard
Bus 3, Addr 10, Port 5.1.2, Speed 12 Mb/s
Class 00: USB device 046d:c52b, USB Receiver
Bus 3, Addr 9, Port 14.4, Speed 12 Mb/s
Class 00: USB device 046d:c227, G15 GamePanel LCD
Bus 3, Addr 8, Port 14.1, Speed 1.5 Mb/s
Class 00: USB device 046d:c226, G15 Gaming Keyboard

In this case I can add my keyboard and mouse to USB passthrough by quitting qm, then running:

qm set YOUR-VM-ID-HERE -usb1 host=04d9:0141
qm set YOUR-VM-ID-HERE -usb2 host=046d:c52b

This saves the devices to the VM configuration for you. It’s possible to hot-add USB devices, but I just rebooted my VM to have the new settings apply.

You can also pass through USB devices by passing through an entire USB controller using Proxmox’s PCIe passthrough feature.

FileVault 2

Scrambled login prompt with FileVault

FileVault disk encryption is a little janky at the moment. It takes a long time (a couple of minutes) for the password prompt to appear on boot, and then the graphics are scrambled so you have to enter your password blind.

If you really want to use it, be certain to keep a copy of your recovery key and keep your backups up to date!

Upgrading from Mojave

First make a backup or snapshot of your system! Catalina has a new disk layout that separates user data from the system partition, so there’s a higher than normal chance of the installer destroying everything.

Update Clover to r5107 by running the Clover installer. Choose the Customise option. Choose:

  • Install for UEFI booting only
  • UEFI drivers section:
    • Recommended Drivers: Tick all, except untick AudioDxe (it causes Clover to hang)
    • Filesystem drivers: Tick ApfsDriverLoader
    • Memory fix drivers: Tick OsxAptioFix3Drv
    • FileVault 2 drivers: Tick all
    • Additional drivers: Tick PartitionDxe

Update any kexts you have installed (Lilu, WhateverGreen, etc). Now reboot to check that Mojave still boots properly using this updated Clover install.

If you’re using any PCIe passthrough devices (particularly video cards) you’ll probably want to disable those and set “vga: vmware” instead, so you can install using Proxmox’s web console. This avoids installer problems triggered by flaky video card passthrough.

Now you can upgrade to Catalina by adding the Catalina-intaller.iso as a DVD drive, editing the VM config to replace “media=cdrom” with “cache=unsafe” and booting from that. You can probably also just install Catalina from the Mac App Store, but I haven’t tested that approach myself.

After upgrading, you may find that on boot you are dropped into the UEFI shell instead of booting Clover. If so, you can manually find and run Clover (e.g. by running “fs0:” “cd EFI\CLOVER “CLOVERX64.efi”), then use Clover’s “Boot Menu Options” menu to remove the Clover UEFI entries and re-add them.

295 thoughts on “Installing macOS Catalina 10.15 on Proxmox 6 using Clover”

  1. Hi, a 1000 thanks for this updated tutorial ! I’d like to give it a try. Now, being a total novice in this, I already need to ask advice as to the first step…
    How do I download the python script from the website? There’s no download option and if a copy paste all the lines in a terminal window, nothing happens… Thanks for your indulgence, I really want to make this work.

    1. 怎么在Proxmox6上运行PYTHON脚本?我在Win10系统中执行fetch-macOS.py出错,为什么不分享Cojave-installer.iso、Cojave-installer.iso文件?
      I try to express my confusion in English.How to run Python script on proxmox6?I have an error executing in win10 system.Why not share BaseSystem.dmg and cojave-installer.iso files?

      1. Just “python” or “python2.7”.

        Sharing those would be copyright infringement. Also people would have to trust that I didn’t add malware to the binary. This way you don’t need to trust me because the file is downloaded straight from Apple.

        1. run”python /var/lib/vz/template/iso/” on Proxmox6.0-9
          Error reading content/catalogs/others/index-10.15seed-10.15-10.14-10.13-10.12-10.11-10.10-10.9-mountainlion-lion-snowleopard-leopard.merged-1.sucatalog: not well-formed (invalid token): line 66646, column 218

          1. root@pve1:~# python /var/lib/vz/template/iso/
            Could not replicate Command ‘[‘/usr/bin/wget’, ‘-c’, ‘–quiet’, ‘-x’, ‘-nH’, ‘’]’ returned non-zero exit status 8
            root@pve1:~# ping
            PING ( 56(84) bytes of data.
            64 bytes from ( icmp_seq=1 ttl=48 time=40.8 ms

          2. 从和可知需要执行jumpstart.sh文件,我试着在PVE6中运行foxlet和smtcrms的、fetch-macos.py并根据反馈修改文件,但是我没有语法基础,看不懂程序脚本,不能正确修改以使程序脚本正确运行得到MACOS系统文件。

  2. Hi again thanks. It actually worked when doing save as from your link here provided, not when doing so when being on the GitHub page.
    Does this script download the image on a specific place ? I’m unable to find it in my downloads folder, nor from the external volume from which i launched the script.
    This is what i have in terminal :

    Choose a product to download (1-6): 1
    % Total % Received % Xferd Average Speed Time Time Time Current
    Dload Upload Total Spent Left Speed
    100 463M 100 463M 0 0 639k 0 0:12:22 0:12:22 –:–:– 669k
    It says 100% downloaded but still giving current speed ?

  3. I’ve followed this guide on my proxmox node i run at work for fun, proxmox 6.0-5. I can get the VM to boot up and it appears to boot fine and make it to the hard drive format/selection screen, but there is something wrong with the display. It only occupies the top third of the screen and is striped across the NoVNC console window like there’s a bad VGA cable connected to a monitor. Not sure how to describe it. The first picture in this article is fairly similar to what i see:

    I’ve tried changing the display option under Hardware and changed the resolution in the OVMF bios but still no luck. Any ideas what could be going on?

    1. You need to select “restart computer” the first time that Clover appears per cold-boot in order to have the resolution applied.

  4. According to your instructions: “After the first stage of installation, the VM should reboot itself and automatically continue installation by booting from the hard drive, then reboot itself a second time and automatically boot from “filevault prebooter”. ”

    ….I’m trying for the n-th time to install OSX on Proxmox (tried multiple times following the Mojave tutorial)! Each and every time I’m facing the same issue: once the machine reboots after the first stage of the installation completes, it simply boots again into Clover where I am seeing the same option as before (“Boot macOS Install from macOS Base System”).

    No matter what I change, I keep facing the same issue…and obviously changing the boot order breaks things even more.

    Not sure at this point how to proceed! Any help is appreciated, and of course THANK YOU for the very elaborate tutorial.

    1. You can solve this issue by hitting F2 to enter the UEFI setup, and picking one of the other options on the Boot Manager to boot from. I don’t know why this happens for some people and not others (it doesn’t happen for me).

    2. Hmm, I had the same issue. Clover wasn’t recognizing my boot drive after installation. I used the build of Clover here: and it worked however.

      Have to say I don’t understand why though, the version of Clover here as well as the one in kholia’s repo is not working for me – doesn’t detect my disk after installation. I have used the instructions in kholia’s repo before with success, but ran into this issue for the first time with the new Clover version.

      From what I can see the Clover in the Simple KVM repo is also 5070, so strange. Also I’m using Ubuntu so that might make a difference. Just thought I’d mention this here in case others run into the same problem.

      1. Can you check Disk Utility and see what partition type you ended up with? GPT?

        You can fix this one by editing the boot menu in the UEFI settings, but the reason why this helps out is a mystery.

        1. Yeah, it’s GPT.

          I’ll try that. Also I compared the contents of qcow2 image from the repo with yours and the main difference is that they have an apfs.efi file in there. I tried creating a new Clover image, which still wasn’t able to detect the drives on boot, but after adding apfs.efi it could.

          I think that apfs.efi used to be added in older Clover versions but it’s not in the newer one, there’s just ApfsDriverLoader.efi now. So whoever built that image must have left the old files there. Don’t know why it can’t automatically detect the disk with just ApfsDriverLoader.efi though.

  5. Awesome stuff – can’t wait to try this for Catalina!

    According to this checkin:

    Mojave+ now support the QEMU VirtIO drivers:

    ### Using virtio-blk-pci with macOS
    Newer macOS (namely Mojave+) have support for some virtio drivers.
    This can be enabled by applying the following change to `` to
    get some performance gain.
    – -device ide-hd,bus=sata.4,drive=MacHDD \
    + -device virtio-blk-pci,drive=MacHDD \

    Is this something you could add to your guide? Have you tried with this?

    Also – is there any risk or danger from using this method on older MacOS versions? (e.g. Mojave, High Sierra, Sierra, Yosemite etc.)? Will Clover 5070 work?

    1. I’ve heard that virtio doesn’t work in the installer so it doesn’t seem worth the trouble. You’d have to toggle it back off again to install system updates.

      Clover 5070 should be backwards compatible (it certainly boots Mojave).

      1. From what I’ve read, the virtio disk driver is meant to have *significant* performance gains.

        I’m fine to turn it on after the installer is run.

        How should I go about doing that? Is it simply a case of changing the hardware configuration in the Proxmox GUI? Or I assume there’s something else I need to do on the config/Apple side?

        1. Edit the VM config file to replace sata1 with virtio0, it’ll be applied on the next launch. You shouldn’t have to do anything in macOS. Run a benchmark in the guest before and after.

  6. Curious – have you (or anybody else) tried using this guide under Redhat oVirt?
    It’s another KVM-based distro – so I guess it’s similar in some ways to Proxmox.
    However, would you need to make a separate OVMF patch for it? And how about things like ignore_msrs?
    Could you take a machine created on Proxmox and transfer it over, or are things too different?

    1. Use the vanilla QEMU source that my tutorial is based on:

      They use my patched OVMF binary. You can use either my or their Clover builds freely (mine is set to 1920×1080 resolution and theirs enables Verbose boot mode by default, no other differences). You should be able to share your installed VM freely across those platforms.

  7. Hi,

    I’m having some issues with retrieving the OSK key from my mac. I have saved the first block of code from the linked website into TextEdit, and have tried to run that file from Terminal using : gcc -o smc_read.c -framework IOKit./smc_read

    – and I get error flags:
    ld: framework not found IOKit./smc_read
    clang: error: linker command failed with exit code 1 (use -v to see invocation)

    Can anyone please help for what I might be doing wrong?


  8. Thanks ! I following your guide and all worked fine. I have trouble using imessage on this vm. I tried to look at tutorials online and i could not figure out why ? Did you get it to work on yours ?

    1. Yeah getting iMessage to work requires playing around with serial numbers etc. I haven’t tried to get that working myself.

  9. Hi,
    Thank you for your reply. Sorry, I still seem to be getting an error.

    My terminal input: gcc -o smc_read.c -framework IOKit

    Terminal returns:
    Undefined symbols for architecture x86_64:
    “_main”, referenced from:
    implicit entry/start for main executable
    ld: symbol(s) not found for architecture x86_64
    clang: error: linker command failed with exit code 1 (use -v to see invocation)

    Thank you very much for your time and sorry if i’m being daft. – thank you for the guide.


    1. Wrong command, you need:

      gcc -o smc_read smc_read.c -framework IOKit

      You may need to delete smc_read.c and recreate it because it could have been overwritten.

    1. Unfortunately I have not seen anybody achieve a boot with a CPU other than Penryn selected. I think the issue lies with Clover.

      Maybe you can test out the new bootloader OpenCore and see if that avoids the problem?

    1. There’s no problem logging on to iCloud, but you will want to set up your SMBIOS to your liking first in Clover Configurator, because Apple doesn’t like it when your serial number changes around later on.

      I’m logged in on my Apple ID.

    1. Sorry, I don’t know of one. In my case I basically just went Clover Configurator -> “Mount EFI” tab -> Mount the EFI partition of the hard disk -> Open the EFI/CLOVER/clover.plist file from the mounted EFI partition -> On SMBIOS tab, choose iMac 14,2 on the dropdown at the right side -> Save Changes -> Reboot.

  10. My vm wont start, I ran the updates in the container and it built.

    Getting this error

    TASK ERROR: start failed: command ‘/usr/bin/kvm -id 104 -name catalina -chardev ‘socket,id=qmp,path=/var/run/qemu-server/104.qmp,server,nowait’ -mon ‘chardev=qmp,mode=control’ -pidfile /var/run/qemu-server/ -daemonize -smbios ‘type=1,uuid=f10ed6af-22cb-47bc-8be5-4e72387da295’ -smp ‘4,sockets=1,cores=4,maxcpus=4’ -nodefaults -boot ‘menu=on,strict=on,reboot-timeout=1000,splash=/usr/share/qemu-server/bootsplash.jpg’ -vga std -vnc unix:/var/run/qemu-server/104.vnc,x509,password -cpu ‘Penryn,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,enforce,vendor=GenuineIntel’ -m 8192 -device ‘isa-applesmc,osk=’ -smbios ‘type=2’ -cpu ‘Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check’ -device ‘usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2’ -device ‘pci-bridge,id=pci.1,chassis_nr=1,bus=pci.0,addr=0x1e’ -device ‘pci-bridge,id=pci.2,chassis_nr=2,bus=pci.0,addr=0x1f’ -device ‘piix3-usb-uhci,id=uhci,bus=pci.0,addr=0x1.0x2’ -device ‘usb-tablet,id=tablet,bus=uhci.0,port=1’ -iscsi ‘’ -drive ‘file=/var/lib/vz/template/iso/Catalina-installer.iso,if=none,id=drive-ide0,cache=unsafe,format=raw,aio=threads,detect-zeroes=on’ -device ‘ide-hd,bus=ide.0,unit=0,drive=drive-ide0,id=ide0’ -drive ‘file=/var/lib/vz/template/iso/clover-r5070.iso,if=none,id=drive-ide2,cache=unsafe,format=raw,aio=threads,detect-zeroes=on’ -device ‘ide-hd,bus=ide.1,unit=0,drive=drive-ide2,id=ide2’ -device ‘ahci,id=ahci0,multifunction=on,bus=pci.0,addr=0x7’ -drive ‘file=/dev/pve/vm-104-disk-1,if=none,id=drive-sata0,format=raw,cache=none,aio=native,detect-zeroes=on’ -device ‘ide-drive,bus=ahci0.0,drive=drive-sata0,id=sata0,bootindex=102’ -netdev ‘type=tap,id=net0,ifname=tap104i0,script=/var/lib/qemu-server/pve-bridge,downscript=/var/lib/qemu-server/pve-bridgedown’ -device ‘e1000,mac=,netdev=net0,bus=pci.0,addr=0x12,id=net0,bootindex=300” failed: exit code 1

    My config file looks like this:

    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+k$
    balloon: 0
    bootdisk: sata0
    cores: 4
    cpu: Penryn
    cpuunits: 1000
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
    memory: 8192
    name: catalina
    net0: e1000=,bridge=vmbr0
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: local-lvm:vm-104-disk-1,size=100G
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=
    sockets: 1

    1. Exit code 1 with no error message? Weird. Try running this to bypass Proxmox’s launch wrapper, it may show the real error message:

      qm showcmd 104 | bash

  11. Okay now I am able to start my vm. I changed the graphics settings and I am getting stuck on the apple logo with no progress bar. Centered apple logo. What to do from here?

  12. Made it even further, updated to proxmox 6 and on the reboot after making the disk in disk utility I am getting stuck on prebooter. However on the install screen my keyboard does not work, even when I pass in a hardware keyboard.

    1. Boot with Verbose mode. If it’s hanging on waiting for DSMOS, your OSK is wrong.

      Are you connecting through SPICE, or the default web VNC?

      Your posted config is missing vga:vmware and has the wrong network adapter. You need to add machine:q35 too.

      1. Thanks for the reply,

        So I am using proxmox 6 now, and the config files look the same and I am able to follow the steps exactly. I am using vga:vmware aswell. Does this not work with No VNC?

          1. Is it normal for the configuration file to change after going through the installation. The config file looks really different now, missing a few lines at the beggining. I am going to restart the process and if it does not work ill post the cfg.

  13. Nick,

    FYI: I am running Proxmox on a 2013 Mac Pro. While it did install Catalina following your instructions, I later changed the processor to “host”, assuming that a real Mac ought to work.

    It did.

    1. Nice one! That’s good to know. It should definitely be possible to do some Clover magic to get my CPU working as “host” I reckon…

  14. Is there a way to install this without owning a mac? Im a hackintosher and wanting to try this out especially pci and usb passthrough. Im currently stuck on the OSK authentication key

    1. Yes, Kholia’s OSX-KVM project on GitHub has the OSK written into the VM config files so you can nab it out of there.

      1. Oops! Never noticed that. Will try it out. Thank you. And thanks for the guide! I’ve been searching for one for proxmox and so far yours is the only one. Very good for first timers to such setup.

  15. Hi, a friend of mine is trying to get proxmox 6 installed in order to host a Cataline VM. He used the following tutorial (in French) :
    He said installation went ok and managed to update to proxmox to latest version.
    Problem begins when he tries to connect to the proxmox server. He tried to do so from his Windows 10 M.2 drive (proxmox is installed on SATA SSD) but is unable to connect to the address the tutorial provided :
    note : this time he didn’t use but his own internal ip address on our network. Could that be the issue ? Is the default address for any proxmox installation?
    Thanks for any help before we proceed with Catalina VM…

  16. Thank you for sharing details about your experience with installing Mojave/Catalina on Proxmox. The world needs more people like you.

    The reason I am contacting you is because I am debating building a hackintosh or trying to setup Proxmox. I have fair knowledge of PC/Mac software/hardware but not a programmer or know much about hackintosh or virtualization. Frightening I know considering I will be building a hackintosh or VM machine and want to go Proxmox for a simple Mac OS and Win 10 VM parallelization with RAID 1 setup.

    I am in windows most of the day working with hardcore real time trading software and later working in Mac OS doing 4k FCPX editing. I want virtualization to run both OSs in parallel. I tried software VM but it just doesn’t cut it for my needs.

    Would you recommend someone like me and what I want to do with VM go Proxmox or VM at all? For a VM beginner is this a sound idea or am I asking for constant problems because of my little knowledge of VMs and little programming skills?

    Thanks for sharing, I look forward to your reply.

    1. You’ll need a system that supports passthrough of two video cards simultaneously to pull that off, and one of those needs to be a compatible AMD card for macOS to use. What are you planning to use?

  17. Finally managed to figure it out, by connecting to the proxmox server from another physical computer (not from another HD on the same tower). But now I’m getting stuck at the clover image upload :
    and upload it to Proxmox’s ISO store at /var/lib/vz/template/iso
    how do I do this? Is it done from the proxmox server GUI or from the proxmox terminal window ? Thanks for a step-by-step tut…

    1. You can download the file from Proxmox’s terminal using wget or upload it to Proxmox from another machine using SSH/SFTP.

  18. Also having trouble with fetching my Mac authentication key. When pasting the code in Terminal, it started downloading Xcode, but then what ? I pasted it again and am getting error :
    smc_read.c:1:1: error: expected identifier or ‘(‘

      1. thanks. Just did that with Word, saving as .txt.
        When launching command in terminal getting another error :
        ld: can’t open output file for writing: smc_read, errno=21 for architecture x86_64
        clang: error: linker command failed with exit code 1 (use -v to see invocation)

        1. Sounds like you’re in a directory you don’t have permission to write to. Change into your home directory or something.

    1. First the total commande :
      xcode-select –install # If you don’t already have gcc
      gcc -o smc_read smc_read.c -framework IOKit
      yielding me error. Then retried with just
      gcc -o smc_read smc_read.c -framework IOKit
      also yielding me error.

      But I found a workaround here :
      where I could DL a terminal script for fetching the OSK key :

      This time it worked. Maybe you could integrate this in your tutorial for noob-dummies as me ?

    1. Last time I tried it, it didn’t work for me. However, there are a lot of Hackintosh guides out there for fixing iMessage. I haven’t tried to fix it myself because I don’t use iMessage.

  19. Situation is this : I would like to have proxmox on my 120Go SSD (done), but all VMs and their storage on a separate NVME SSD, but how should I proceed for this before trying to install the VM?
    Also, I can only connect to my proxmox server from a different physical computer. After installation, will I be able to boot into proxmox just from the PC where I installed it ?

    1. Let’s imagine you want to format the new drive ZFS. Select your node in the tree on the left, and go to Disks -> ZFS, click Create: ZFS. Give it a name, select the disk you want to erase, and click Create.

      >After installation, will I be able to boot into proxmox just from the PC where I installed it ?

      I mean, not exactly, as Proxmox is designed to run as a headless server. You have two options for achieving that. You could try installing a Desktop Environment into Proxmox:

      Note that anything there that mentions Debian Jessie is out of date, Proxmox 6 is now based on Debian Buster.

      Or if your hardware supports device passthrough (e.g. Intel VT-d) you can do what I do and pass through your host’s video card and USB controller directly to macOS. This is the highest performance option if your video card is actually supported by macOS:

      1. hi and thanks for the reply. I’m not there yet… will try to link 2 screenshots.
        Basically, when selecting the node (installed on my 120Go ssd) and doing what you say, I’m getting an empty device window (no unused disk).
        When going to the disk list, I can see my 2 NVME’s :/dev/nvme0n1 : on this one I have my windows 10 OS installed (not VM)
        /dev/nvme1n1 : here I would like to install my proxmox VM’s

  20. Hi, in the meantime I found another tutorial to make my NVME disk recognized in the disks menu in the node. I’m stuck in the stage for patching the OVMF file. Followed your tut and managed to edit with Bbedit, but then I don’t know how to execute the command.
    I put the.deb file here :
    Then, when going to the shell window on the now, how do I execute your commands?

  21. Sorry, correction : I had put it through FileZilla in /dev
    but then I’m lost + have the impression that when navigating on proxmox server through Filezilla and coming back to /dev directory, the file is gone…

    1. Don’t store files in /dev, that’s for special devices. /root is a handy spot since that’s the home directory for the root user.

  22. ok, put the .conf file in /root, but still stuck in booting up VM for first time.
    Wondering whether it’s some error in the .conf file ?
    In first try, final result was a bit different than in your screenshot (using Bbedit) :

    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=… -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    bios: ovmf
    boot: cdn
    bootdisk: ide2
    cores: 5
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: SSD:vm-153-disk-1,size=128K
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2096996K
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
    machine: q35
    memory: 8000
    name: Catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=1A:53:24:B0:93:99,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: SSD:vm-153-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=400G,ssd=1
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=212d39ad-6e3b-4d5d-85af-5070225140d9
    sockets: 1
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: f2bed214-b7f4-441f-9b45-7777bf40188c

    as you can see, there’s a few differences:
    – no balloon:0 argument
    – vmgenid argument
    (I didn’t add the quotes for the OSK…)

    i edited the resolution, and then started VM again :
    this resulted in getting into the clover boot screen, but failed to show me boot up disk (see screenshot previous post).

    Then I edited the file again to match exactly your example (adding balloon, quote marks for OSK and deleting vmgenid) :

    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”…” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    balloon: 0
    bios: ovmf
    boot: cdn
    bootdisk: ide2
    cores: 5
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: SSD:vm-153-disk-1,size=128K
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2096996K
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
    machine: q35
    memory: 8000
    name: Catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=1A:53:24:B0:93:99,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: SSD:vm-153-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=400G,ssd=1
    smbios1: uuid=212d39ad-6e3b-4d5d-85af-5070225140d9
    sockets: 1
    vga: vmware

    So, that’s as far as I can take it alone. Thanks for any help !

  23. ok, have been doing some more homework in the meantime. Followed comments on your proxmox 5 tutorial where you suggested to launch VM from command line with command qm start xxx
    I’m getting the following :
    root@pve:~# qm start 153
    kvm: -device isa-applesmc,osk=…: warning: Using AppleSMC with invalid key

    so stg seems wrong with my OSK key. Any thoughts? Can you check whether the script I found is a valid one? Do I need to add the quotation marks?

  24. Thx 4 any feedback on this, coz I’m really stuck. Did try to boot with clover but with original Catalina disk converted in iso, it got me a bit further (did have to add media=cd) : got halfway the progress bar after booting (first got the progress bar stretching over the screen bug, but this was solved after booting several times)…

    1. What OSK did you end up with. Make sure your text editor didn’t convert straight quotes to curly quotes or (c) to a copyright symbol.

      Also you have cores:5, that will probably never boot, use 4 instead.

      1. osk=”… ”

        secundo : i pasted your code

        args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”THE-OSK-YOU-EXTRACTED-GOES-HERE” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2

        in a single line while editing the .conf file. Was that the correct thing to do? Set cores to 4. Thx 4 ur feedback…

        1. That looks okay but try retyping the OSK from scratch just in case it contains a hidden soft linebreak character.

          Try removing the quotes too.

  25. Finally discovered why I never managed to complete the conversion from .img to .iso :

    hdiutil convert BaseSystem.dmg -format RdWr -o Catalina-installer.iso
    mv Cojave-installer.iso.img Cojave-installer.iso

    there’s an error in the command you provided : Cojave is a non-existant Os yet … : ). It did work with :

    mv Catalina-installer.iso.img Catalina-installer.iso

  26. Questions :
    – any incompatibility with Asus PRIME Z390-P mobos ? I did activate the Intel (VMX) Virtualization Technology in the UEFI BIOS, this was necessary, right ?
    – you suggested elsewhere to activate the -v verbose option in the clover boot screen. Where can I find the log of the failed boot in order to share it so you can see where it’s going wrong?

    1. Host UEFI is effectively irrelevant for this because the virtualised environment doesn’t interact with it.

      The verbose log is only printed to the screen as far as I know, you can capture a video. But there’s no point trying to boot if you’re still getting the invalid OSK warning.

  27. Any way you could make the screen resolution 3840 x 1080? The ONVF does not allow selecting a resolution like that That way when I VNC from my windows machine it could scale across two of my monitors natively using RealVNC.

  28. Hi, I followed the steps and now I can boot the vm, but it shows the logo of apple and won’t keep going.

    my .conf file

    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”…” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    bios: ovmf
    bootdisk: sata0
    cores: 6
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-1,size=128K
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2093532K
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
    machine: q35
    memory: 8192
    name: Catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=36:4E:2B:D0:8A:71,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=100G,ssd=1
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=…
    sockets: 1
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: …

  29. Hey Nick,
    Proxmox 6.1 is available.
    Do you know already if it comes with updated pve-edk2-firmware?
    If not, can we let it stay on “hold” and update Proxmox to v6.1?

    Thx. alot.

    1. Yes, pve-edk2-firmware has been updated by Proxmox to 2.20191002-1. I haven’t tested out Proxmox 6.1 yet so I’m not sure if you can just keep the hold on my older version. In the past, the OVMF version was not critical and you could use an older version without causing issues.

      I’ll probably upgrade to 6.1 in the coming weeks and update this package to match.

          1. I’m currently running proxmox-ve 6.1-2 and pve-edk2-firmware 2.20191127-1 with no issues. You’re going to have to give more detail about what’s not working.

  30. I set the resolution via the OVMF resolution, as per the howto.

    However, I find that the setting isn’t preserved across shutdowns/reboots.

    That is, if I start the MacOS VM again – the resolution is garbled, unless I go into the OVMF menu again, and hit “Reset” through that.

    I then saw your paragraph, which mentions needing to hit “Restart Computer” in the Clover menu. Do you mean that we need to do this once *every* time we boot up the VM?

    Or is there any way to apply the resolution fix and have it just work?

    1. Yes, you need to do that every time. I haven’t investigated a solution for this yet because I use a PCIe passthrough video card instead where this bug isn’t an issue.

      1. Aha, it would be so great if there was a fix for this bug.

        To provide context on use-cases, we have a test environment with multiple MacOS machines for reproducing bugs etc. The VMs are ephemeral and short-lived.

        Hence, it’s not feasible to have a separate passthrough video card for each one.

        Is this a bug in Clover?

        1. No, my bet is that it is a bug in OVMF, or at least Proxmox’s version of it, because you can see that the “Proxmox” boot logo doesn’t even use the set resolution until the guest is reset one time.

          1. Do you know who we could talk to about fixing this bug?

            From what you said – it sounds like the Proxmox folks are the right ones?

            Have you mentioned it to them before, or was there any earlier emails about it? Any context I can provide them that would help them?

          2. Hi Nicholas,

            I actually asked about this on the ed2k-discuss mailing list (OVMF):


            > Please talk to the Proxmox developers and/or the author of the guide you linked above. There is no bug in OVMF in the area you mention — it works just fine on QEMU, using pflash for backing the UEFI variable store. I don’t know why the 1920×1080 screen resolution doesn’t “stick” for you, using proxmox; the resolution certainly sticks when non-volatile UEFI variables are actually non-volatile.

            They say it’s not an issue in the OVMF firmware? (I’m not technically qualified enough to determine if correct or not):

            I also asked on the pve-devel list:


            and they’re not sure it’s an issue in their end.

            But then I saw this:


            Is that related to the issue?

            Anyhow – is there any chance you could jump in the above threads, or potentially give me some pointers on what to say, to try to get to the root cause of this issue?


          3. I’ve replied on the edk2 list now. That Proxmox patch you linked is quite interesting, although I don’t think it applies when the EFI disk is stored on ZFS, as mine as.

        2. Have you resolved this issue, that without gpu passthrough every time I boot I need to enter ovmf bios and hit reset to get a proper resolution.

      2. I also use a RX 580 passthrough card… My only issue is, that this card is not activating the output until late in to the boot… So I can not access clover…
        Not a problem on daily usage – I just wait for it to auto-boot in clover.. But I can not get it to update to Catalina…. And booting without the passthrough activated now fails…
        (kernel freezing etc.)

        Any pointers???

        1. So you can’t boot if you disable your passthrough and set “vga: vmware” instead? Did you recently upgrade to Proxmox 6.1? If so you probably need to reinstall my patched OVMF firmware.

          1. True – it fails to boot when using vga or std or vmware… And no, haven’t updated for ages… Actually still on 5.4.something…

          2. Double check that the pve-edk2-firmware package is still my patched version, or it’ll hang during boot.

            Maybe your macOS installation is just broken? Either that or you’ve turned on some “inject graphics” option in Clover that needs to be disabled.

  31. I can’t Shutdown my macos from Proxmox WebUI,
    but reboot/stop function is fine.
    Seems like macos doesnt response to the ACPI shutdown.
    Does qemu-agent support macos?

    1. What version of pve-edk2-firmware do you have installed? The update could have overwritten my patched version because I haven’t updated the patch for 6.1 yet. You may be able to install my old version.

      1. I have a 6.1 lab environment and your steps have worked fine. I tried it first without the firmware change but it appears 6.1 doesn’t have that change implemented in OVMF. Reverting the OVMF firmware the one you’ve linked here worked totally fine.

    2. Hi there!
      After installing the new prebuilt for pve v6.1, i can start up the installation of macos15.
      I got the error:
      ** AppleSMBusPCI::start failed to get acpi path for provider
      ACPI_SMB_PlatformPlugin::start – waitForService(resourceMatching(AppleIntelCPUPowerManagement) timed out
      and the VM will restart to Clover.
      Anybody have a idea?
      args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”…” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
      balloon: 0
      bios: ovmf
      boot: cdn
      bootdisk: ide2
      cores: 4
      cpu: Penryn
      efidisk0: KVM:vm-201-disk-0,size=1M
      ide0: local:iso/catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe
      ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
      machine: q35
      memory: 4096
      name: macos15
      net0: vmxnet3=–:–…,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
      numa: 0
      ostype: other
      sata0: local-zfs:vm-201-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=32G,ssd=1
      #scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
      smbios1: uuid=…
      sockets: 1
      vga: vmware
      vmgenid: …

  32. Hi, I followed your steps to set the resolution to 1920×1080 in bios and reset, it works, but if I shutdown the VM and start again in WebUI, the screen resolution drop down to 1024×768 or somewhat again, I checked in bios, the resolution had been saved to 1920×1080 but the VM just don’t run properly, Apple logo be off-centre…

    1. Yep that’s right, you need to hit “restart computer” the first time that Clover appears after a cold boot in order for the resolution to actually be applied. That’s for every cold boot.

      1. Thanks for the reply. So, no way to avoid a restart?
        Another question, how to make a physical USB port always assigned to VM, from the document, only connected devices can be assigned to VM. I tried to add PCI USB controller to VM, but it seems the macOS can not recognize the hardware.

        1. This user created a fork of the EFI firmware which deletes support for every resolution except the one you want to use, which “fixes” this screen resolution issue:

          As for passing specific ports, there doesn’t seem to be a good way to do this with QEMU’s USB passthrough. You can pass ports by their bus identifier, but these identifiers change as hubs come and go which renders them nearly worthless (e.g. plugging in a keyboard with an integrated hub can cause them to be renumbered).

          Buy a supported PCIe USB card instead, I’m using a specific Inatek card with a Fresco Logic FL1100 chipset that is supported by macOS out of the box:

          1. Thanks for your help!
            I have one thing for sharing: I had succeed passing through a RX580 to VM, today I replace RX580 with a RX550 without any configuration modified, and I can successfully boot into macOS and RX550 also works! It seems like I don’t have to add verdor/device ids to /etc/modprobe.d/vfio-pci.conf files, Proxmox would bind the vfio drivers automatically when the VM need it. (of course amdgpu driver is in the blacklist)

  33. In my install Clover boots fine. When I press Enter it starts to load the Mac OS but the progress bar only gets about 2 thirds of the way and then the VM resets itself and boots back to Clover. Any thoughts on what I can check? Running ProxMox 6.0-4.

    1. Make sure you have the correct OSK specified. If you start your VM from Proxmox’s command line like “qm start 1xx” you may see a warning about a bad OSK, which is triggered if the OSK is not the exact right length, which indicates that there’s some bad character in there.

      Also I’m assuming that the progress bar displayed fine and was not smeared across the screen – if it was smeared you missed the bit about setting the UEFI screen resolution (once in total for the VM) and selecting Restart Computer from Clover’s menu (once per VM cold boot).

      1. start failed: command ‘/usr/bin/kvm -id 102 -name Catalina -chardev ‘socket,id=qmp,path=/var/run/qemu-server/102.qmp,server,nowait’ -mon ‘chardev=qmp,mode=control’ -chardev ‘socket,id=qmp-event,path=/var/run/qmeventd.sock,reconnect=5’ -mon ‘chardev=qmp-event,mode=control’ -pidfile /var/run/qemu-server/ -daemonize -smbios ‘type=1,uuid=7f9b690a-50b7-4bd7-a8bf-b46e07ce5c66’ -drive ‘if=pflash,unit=0,format=raw,readonly,file=/usr/share/pve-edk2-firmware//OVMF_CODE.fd’ -drive ‘if=pflash,unit=1,format=raw,id=drive-efidisk0,file=/dev/pve/vm-102-disk-1’ -smp ‘8,sockets=2,cores=4,maxcpus=8’ -nodefaults -boot ‘menu=on,strict=on,reboot-timeout=1000,splash=/usr/share/qemu-server/bootsplash.jpg’ -vga none -nographic -cpu ‘Penryn,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,enforce,vendor=GenuineIntel’ -m 8192 -device ‘vmgenid,guid=c5ab6ab0-b0fe-4a8b-a66b-8b73930c4452’ -readconfig /usr/share/qemu-server/pve-q35-4.0.cfg -device ‘usb-tablet,id=tablet,bus=ehci.0,port=1’ -iscsi ‘’ -drive ‘file=/var/lib/vz/template/iso/Catalina-installer.iso,if=none,id=drive-ide0,cache=unsafe,format=raw,aio=threads,detect-zeroes=on’ -device ‘ide-hd,bus=ide.0,unit=0,drive=drive-ide0,id=ide0’ -drive ‘file=/var/lib/vz/template/iso/clover-r5070.iso,if=none,id=drive-ide2,cache=unsafe,format=raw,aio=threads,detect-zeroes=on’ -device ‘ide-hd,bus=ide.1,unit=0,drive=drive-ide2,id=ide2’ -device ‘ahci,id=ahci0,multifunction=on,bus=pci.0,addr=0x7’ -drive ‘file=/dev/pve/vm-102-disk-0,if=none,id=drive-sata0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,format=raw,aio=threads,detect-zeroes=unmap’ -device ‘ide-hd,bus=ahci0.0,drive=drive-sata0,id=sata0,rotation_rate=1’ -netdev ‘type=tap,id=net0,ifname=tap102i0,script=/var/lib/qemu-server/pve-bridge,downscript=/var/lib/qemu-server/pve-bridgedown’ -device ‘vmxnet3,mac=3A:7E:2D:FE:E5:EC,netdev=net0,bus=pci.0,addr=0x12,id=net0’ -machine ‘type=pc-q35-4.0.1’ -device ‘isa-applesmc,osk=…’ -smbios ‘type=2’ -cpu ‘Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check’ -smp 32, ‘sockets=2,cores=8,threads=2” failed: exit code 1

  34. Hey Nick, have you had any issues after upgrading to 6.1? I’m currently on 6.1-5 with the 5.3 kernel, and I can no longer boot my OS X VM. I’ve tried creating a new one from scratch, but after the initial install, after the first reboot, Clover cannot find my drive. It will only give me the option to boot the installer. From googling, it seems that this may be an issue with Proxmox in general and an issue with OVMF? Any thoughts? I’m desperate to get my VM up and running again!

    1. Actually no, I’ve had no problems with 6.1, kernel version 5.3.10-1-pve.

      For that missing drive problem, that is a problem that some people had even before the kernel update, and I don’t know what causes it. You can apparently fix that by picking a different boot disk in the UEFI settings menu’s boot options (though why this should fix anything is a mystery!).

      1. Ok so super odd…I wasn’t exactly sure where to go to access those UEFI settings….so I booted my VM, hit escape right away….didn’t do anything but just scrolled to ‘continue’…it booted clover and showed all my drives?! Continuing on with the install now and we’ll see how it goes.

        1. Hm in that case maybe the secret is just delaying the boot long enough that the disk is “ready” for Clover to read…

  35. Excellent guide thank you very much! I am experiencing how it currently looks to me slow disc performance. Do you have any idea how to handle this? I have installed Catalina sucessfully, but when I copy/paste , or mount unmount devices read/write speeds are slow. I am having fast boot tho, and system is installed on SSD drive, which should perform well.

    Maybe there is some kext driver which could improve things? 🙂


    1. Catalina now supports virtio-blk to some extent, so you can try replacing “sata0” with “virtio0” in your VM config. In theory it should be slightly more efficient.

      What storage type are you using for the VM disk, are you using qcow2 or one of the raw options like ZFS zvols?

      1. Is it OK that I dont see virtio drive in Hardware under proxmox web admin? I think there should be one entry?
        I have edited my vm.conf file as you stated, speficically those 2 rows:

        bootdisk: virtio0
        virtio0: local-lvm:vm-103-disk-0,backup=0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=40G,ssd=1

        VM installed disk (SATA0 SSD emulated is lvmthin). I think this was default one when I initially installed proxmox 4.X.X few years ago. Would you consider changing storage type to LVM or some other?

        1. On LVM-thin, disk operations that need to grow the volume will be slower than with a pre-allocated disk, but probably not by a huge amount.

          Does the virtio disk work? If so I’d just ignore the Proxmox web interface.

          Have you tried any disk benchmarks in the guest to quantify how slow it is? Or is the problem just that the UI responsiveness drops when IO operations are in progress?

          1. I have managed to enable virtio disk (,ssd=1 entry must be removed at the end). Results are not in favour of virtio
            sata0, ssd enabled:
            Read: ~ 220 MB/s
            Write: ~2500 MB/s

            Read: ~200 MB/s
            Write: ~2000 MB/s

            I can actually see Apple indexing Application file sizes in finder 😀 one by one, it displays application file size. I am sure this is disc issue, Blackmagic speed test application cold starts for about 10 seconds… Which storage file type you would recommend in general? LVM?

          2. Okay I imagine those write speeds are actually just writing to the host’s disk cache.

            I personally like ZFS but I doubt it outperforms LVM. LVM should be better than LVM-thin.

  36. Hi,

    My problem concerns this article. I have followed the instructions above.

    I have a strange problem : after the boot of clover, I cannot start the installation of Catalina, because the “Apple Logo” is simply missing.

    I have renamed initialy the file InstallESDDmg.pkg to InstallESDDmg.dmg and after that used dmg2img.exe to create the ISO. Is that the correct way ? ( I have found an other file named InstallESD.dmg inside the same pkg file, so I’m in doubt of the correct procedure )

    What could be reasons of a missing apple logo in the start screen of clover ?


    1. Where are you getting InstallESDDmg.pkg from? The script described here, used to download Catalina, results in a BaseSystem.dmg file, never an InstallESDDmg.pkg file. That BaseSystem.dmg is converted to a raw disk image in the second step.

  37. Hi,
    I have found the link to the pkg here :
    After that, I go to :
    I’ve opened the InstallESDDmg.pkg with 7zip and found in it : InstallESD.dmg
    After that I’ve used your article to continue the installation.
    Is this way to proceed not in adequation with your method ?
    Thanks for the time you take to investigate my problem.

  38. Hi,
    I’ll follow your complete instructions.
    A question that I ask myself about the size of the file InstallESD.dmg. Yours is about 500 mb.
    Do you know why the update size from Mojave to Catalina ( InstallESDDmg.pkg ) is about 8 GB in comparison ?

    1. This is because the method used here just writes a recovery image to the disk, then Catalina is downloaded by the recovery during installation just like on a real Mac.

  39. Thank you so much for your tutorials! After installing Proxmox out of curiosity on an INTEL NUC with a low end 2 core i3 CPU I was able to install Catalina and Mojave following your steps. After a long time of installing OSX “bare metal” I might switch to this method because of the snapshots and ZFS. I was not able to install El Capitan what I really need because I have a software that runs only on this OSX version. I’d send you a donation if you find ever the time for a tutorial (or help me) to get El Capitan up and running on Proxmox. Continue your great work!

  40. Thanks a ton for this tutorial! It worked flawlessly for me. Btw, do you know why the disk appears as external? Is there any way to correct this? Clover kext maybe? It might be a minor thing but it’s kinda bugging me.

  41. Thank you for your tutorial. It worked well, though I did the install twice due to the strange screen resolution after a reboot before I found the answer in the comments.

    I really appreciate the thoroughness and supplementary support.

  42. How exactly can I define a static IP when in macOS utilities prior to Reinstall macOS? Network Utilities appears to be stripped down.

    1. I was really excited following this guide as it’s going as per guide however same like Mark, I ran into a problem performing the Mac OS Install as the vm does not have a network connection because all our VMs are running on static IP addressing(no DHCP).

      getting error: An internet connection is required to install macOS

      I have followed below guides to do this via Terminal and it looks like it’s able to set the network settings successfully however recovery can’t get past internet, only within local network.

      Firewall is fine and no manual intervention required other than just setting up Static IP on the VM.

      Guides I followed in Setting Static IP on Mac OS Recovery

      Anyone has success with doing static IP setup for this?

      1. Unfortunately no luck for me to get internet connection after setting Static IP while in macOS Recovery in this configuration. It’s weird, i was able to ping devices in local network but pinging just fails.

        As we had never require to do anything on our firewall for new device setup, i don’t suspect our firewall was the cause of this.

        Gave up on forcing static ip on macOS recovery
        Fortunately for me, Proxmox is running on Dell Poweredge R720 with multiple network options.

        Connected 2nd network port to another VLAN with DHCP within our network and apply the bridge connection with the macOS Catalina guest OS.
        Was able to complete the macOS installation successfully now as macOS recovery is able to get internet connection.

        I was then able to set the static IP within macOS Catalina, shutdown the guest OS and swap back the network to vmbr0 putting it back to the management VLAN.

  43. Hello
    I tried several times this guide and all works fine until I reach the MAC OS Intaller. The screen becomes unusable, the apple logo appears and the loading bar is shown 10 times duplicated in the screen, and then the installer appears but it is totally distorted and unusable… Any clue about this issue?
    HP Proliant DL380 Gen6
    Proxmox 6.1-5
    VM created by your instructions…


    1. You need to follow the instructions for setting the screen resolution in the UEFI settings, then make sure you reboot the VM once upon every VM cold boot in order for that resolution to actually be applied (e.g by using the Restart Computer option in Clover).

  44. hi, love your tutorial. I now have an awesome setup with your help. Just wanted to add that you need to add apfs.efi to the drivers/UEFI in clover to be able to boot with APFS filesysteme.

    Best regards.

    1. No, you don’t, otherwise nobody following this tutorial would ever have been able to boot, since Catalina always has an APFS root filesystem.

      This Clover build uses ApfsDriverLoader.efi to load apfs.efi from the installed macOS itself, just like on a real Mac, so that the correct apfs version is always used. If you manually put apfs.efi into Clover then you will end up with a version mismatch after macOS upgrades.

      1. my bad thought it was the solution but it isn’t even after adding the apfs.efi i am still not able to see the boot drive where i installed catalina. In the boot sequence there is a line saying the partion was not recognised as a system or data partition. think i am going to use macos journaled instead.

        1. You can’t install on macOS Journaled because Catalina will automatically convert it to APFS during installation.

          For the missing disk, try entering the guest UEFI settings and picking a different boot option there. For some reason this fixes things for some users.

          1. In the guest, hit F2 at the start of boot to enter UEFI settings, then check out the boot order settings.

  45. Hi, I’m trying to install Catalina, but when I boot the first time the vm, Clover start, but I can’t see the Hard Disk where is located the macOS Installer.

    Here’s my *.conf:
    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”OSK-KEY” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    balloon: 0
    bios: ovmf
    boot: c
    bootdisk: ide2
    cores: 8
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: bigdrive:100/vm-100-disk-1.raw,size=128K
    hostpci0: 00:1d.0
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina.iso,cache=unsafe,size=8500M
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
    machine: q35
    memory: 24576
    name: catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=XX:XX:XX:XX:XX:XX,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: bigdrive:100/vm-100-disk-0.raw,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=…
    sockets: 2
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: d2831b47-cc4c-447f-881c-47e57b7deaa5

  46. Very unorthodox question: Have you tried doing a passthrough of the Intel Integrated Graphics for your macOS VM? I managed to do it for a Linux VM (got Linux running through the IGPU and Win 10 running through the DGPU at the same time), but so far, no luck doing the same with macOS. I get video output, but it’s either all black, or a garbled screen.

  47. I am stuck at this point:
    “Don’t try to start the VM just yet. First, SSH into your Proxmox server so we can make some edits to the configuration files.

    Edit /etc/pve/qemu-server/YOUR-VM-ID-HERE.conf (with nano or vim).”

    I have another MacOs machine from which I can access my second machine running Proxmox, but I have no idea how to perform the actions I quoted.
    From the MacOs machine I launched terminal and I connected to my proxmox machine with ssh, but from there I have no idea how to navigate the content or edit the conf file. Can anybody help me writing me down clearly the commands I have to use?

    1. Googling “Linux Tutorial” would be a really good start here if you’re going to be doing any administration of Proxmox at all going forward.

      nano /etc/pve/qemu-server/100.conf

      And then ctrl-x to exit when you’re finished and tell it to save changes when asked.

  48. Hi i’m Stuck at the Apple Logo without a Progress bar.
    With -v it shows me that boot failed: will sleep for 10 seconds before exiting.
    I tried installing the Patch OVMF again nothing happend same issue.

    Any ideas?
    If you need anything just let me know.

    1. What core count and RAM are you giving to the VM?

      You might need to post your whole VM config file here for review.

      1. It has 8 Gb of Ram and i configured 4 for the VM. Is it possible that my Cpu or something like that is not compatible?
        Do you mean this config ?

        args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=… -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
        balloon: 0
        bios: ovmf
        boot: cdn
        bootdisk: ide2
        cores: 2
        cpu: Penryn
        efidisk0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-1,size=128K
        ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2093068K
        ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
        machine: q35
        memory: 4096
        name: Catalina
        net0: vmxnet3=82:EA:67:FD:B0:1E,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
        numa: 0
        ostype: other
        sata0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G
        scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
        smbios1: uuid=bfa5f555-f6f2-4a2f-b631-e2506a36516a
        sockets: 1
        vga: vmware
        vmgenid: a6a5f082-30e8-4f1b-a14b-93c809887807

  49. AMD Turion(tm) II Neo K625 Dual-Core Processor

    I hope you dont tell me i made evertyhing wrong because its an AMD not an Intel Processor hahahahah

    1. Whoo boy that’s an antique! Unfortunately it doesn’t support SSE 4.2, which is a requirement for Catalina.

      I think the newest version you could install would be El Capitan.

      1. HAHA ok hahah good to know , than i have to find something else…

        I really have to say thank you ! First of all because of your Tutorial here and second because you reply so fast that is amazing thank you really much for this !

  50. Usb keyboard passthrought is working only partly. I can select the booting partion at clover boot screen but after booted successfully into catalina the mouse and also the keyboard is not working anymore, so I cannot login… What can I do?

    1. The mouse doesn’t work either? Double check that you have the Tablet enabled in VM settings. If you do have it enabled then this is a problem I’ve never seen before.

      Is the VM actually locking up rather than disabling the keyboard and mouse? Watch the clock display and see if it continues to update to match real time.

  51. Sorry about my late answer and thanks for your comment! In the meantime I solved my problem by removing the “,usb3=1” option from VM.conf in the usb section. Now the catalina is working great with gpu and usb passthrough. Congratulation for your project it is amazing. I think, it is gonna be the future of hackintoshing.
    I installed proxmox into a new new ssd raidz1. So I started over everything. I followed your steps one by one again. However I am facing problem when trying to boot into catalina installer. Catalina installation starts with clover iso, I can select the installer boot hdd, then apple logo is showing up, but then nothing is happening… there is no progressbar showing up and no error message showing up. What do you think can be the problem?

    1. Hit space at the Clover boot menu and tick the Verbose option for booting, this will show you what the boot sequence is getting stuck on.

      Most likely causes are setting the core count to an odd number (use 1, 2, or 4 cores), or making a typo in your OSK, especially by using text editors which replace the straight quotes with curly quotes, or the “(c)” text with a Unicode copyright symbol.

  52. I investigated the problem a little more. On the new proxmox setup the kernel hasn`t updated to 5.3.13-3-pve, but it it still showing(uname -r) 5.3.10-1-pve. Is that what it cause my problem? I had ran your deb package on the new proxmox too: pve-edk2-firmware_2.20191002-1_all.deb on the new proxmox. Wasn`t this this update supposed to update the kernel to 5.3.13-3-pve?

    1. That kernel version should be fine. Did you set up your Proxmox apt repository correctly to get updates though? They have details in their wiki.

  53. I corrected the repository from stretch to buster the kernel updated to but it didn`t change anything. I recreated another catalina vm in my old proxmox install, it works perfectly. On the new proxmox setup it is not. The progress bar is not showing up. The verbose boot shows no error message. I am stuck now…Have you got any idea?

  54. corei7 8700. I recreated catalina vms on the both proxmox installs with exactly the same steps. On the same workstation old proxmox setup runs catalina installation perfectly, new proxmox install stuck with apple logo with no progress bar showing up.

  55. It seems, I solved it. 🙂 Yes. It had to with this script pve-edk2-firmware_2.20191002-1_all.deb. The problem I installed it in lazy graphical way in debian. Debian showed success at the end, but actually it wasn`t. I tried with intstalling with dpkg -i with root user in terminal and now it is working.
    Finally… It works. Thanks anyway! and Please continue with your blog posts about proxmox and macosx. They are super useful!

  56. One more question. Why are you sugesting adding the hardisk as sata type instead of as a virtio device. Usually virtio devices has better performance, aren`t they?

  57. Memory usage in PVE not tallying with macOS Activity Monitor

    Anyone else faced this issue?

    – I have allocated 16GB of memory on our macOS Catalina Guest VM
    – in PVE, it’s showing 90% usage
    – in macOS Activity Monitor, it’s only showing 50% usage

    Is there something else PVE is picking up that macOS is not detecting?
    Will enabling ballooning help?

    1. Proxmox has no insight into how much memory the guest considers “used”, because macOS has no QEMU agent support and no ballooning support. This renders the memory graph pointless.

      Proxmox can’t discard any of the guest’s pages because it can not tell when the guest is done using them.

      1. Thanks for the quick response! And if i have not mentioned, thank you for the detailed guide which allows us to install macOS easily on our Proxmox install with only 1 hiccup which is the static IP networking while in macOS install which we managed to get pass by temporarily assigning DHCP during installation.

        Does that mean we can safely ignore the memory information on Proxmox and just rely on the information within macOS?

        Sorry – just a little paranoid seeing 90% usage in proxmox even though the macOS guest is idling and not running services that would cause a spike in usage.

        1. >Does that mean we can safely ignore the memory information on Proxmox and just rely on the information within macOS?

          Yes, that’s correct, because only your guest knows how much memory is used by apps, used by disk cache, or truly free (normally zero unless you’ve only just booted).

  58. Excellent instructions and very thorough. I haven’t had much of any difficulty in implementation. I am experiencing an odd issue. I have a WX7100 that gets detected via PCIe passthrough, showing up in the system profiler – however, it doesn’t load the AMD video driver for Catalina, therefore accelerated graphics, instead of reverting to the default virtual framebuffer. Is this related to the machine type/ smbios in clover or some additional work that I need to do? Obviously there is are other facts probably needed for a clear answer but I’m curious if this behavior has been seen before and what may be possible to adjust.

      1. Thanks for the speedy reply — I doublechecked everything and lilu and WEG are both activated. I’m now seeing the wx7100 card as its defined name instead of just GPU. However it doesn’t activate the connected headless DP nibs. (I’ve got three attached)

        Side note – I got a wx4100 to work –but just with an HDMI at 1080p so same issue – no Display port / framebuffer activated .

        Is this one of those issues where I need to flash the Or load it via ROM file? Or maybe use hackintool to generate the correct framebuffer?

        1. Did you set “vga: none” in your VM config? By removing the emulated video like this the passthrough card should become the primary device.

          You might find some better help for this device at a generic Hackintosh forum like , the problem may not be virtualisation-related.

        2. I should probually mention that the card does pcie passthrough on proxmox into a windows 10 VM perfect, with all three headless DP ports detected and able to run at 4k.

  59. Hi Nicholas, my name is Christian, I arrive without problems to the clover screen to start the installation, but after that nothing happens, only the apple icon appears, would you know why?

      1. args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”…” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+p$
        balloon: 0
        bios: ovmf
        boot: cdn
        bootdisk: ide2
        cores: 4
        cpu: Penryn
        efidisk0: vmachines:126/vm-126-disk-1.raw,size=128K
        ide0: vmachines:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2093068K
        ide2: vmachines:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe,size=256M
        machine: q35
        memory: 8192
        name: Catalina
        net0: vmxnet3=FE:16:C8:96:C8:EE,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
        numa: 0
        ostype: other
        sata0: vmachines:126/vm-126-disk-0.raw,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G,ssd=1
        scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
        smbios1: uuid=c99ca027-3e4d-457a-9e9e-3e40152dfe32
        sockets: 1
        vga: vmware
        vmgenid: ebe35e19-744c-449d-a609-fd55ea8441af

          1. Double check that you installed the pve-edk-firmware package properly, it causes this symptom if not installed.

  60. The script lets you download High Sierra, Mojave and Catalina.

    Do you know how to download older MacOS installers (e.g. Sierra)?


    1. Download the installers from Apple here and install them onto your Mac, this will add the installer into your /Applications directory for you:

      Then you can create a big enough disk image using Disk Utility, and follow the instructions there to call createinstallmedia to make your install image for you.

      For Sierra, I installed that as a VM recently myself, but I haven’t managed to get it to boot using Clover. Instead follow my old instructions for booting in SeaBIOS mode and adding Enoch to the args (Enoch is now found in the /backups directory of the OSX-KVM repo): .

      Please post any followup questions on that recent Fork Bomb post of mine.

  61. Unable to take a backup – it times out… only this vm- strange

    Also note that I am using a AMD EPYC 7401P CPU and i get this error
    kvm: warning: host doesn’t support requested feature: CPUID.01H:ECX.pcid [bit 17]

    any suggestions

    1. You’re getting that warning because pcid is Intel’s Meltdown mitigation CPU feature, you can remove pcid from your “args” line, since AMD isn’t affected and so has no equivalent feature.

  62. So I decided to setup a 2nd proxmox node and setup a 2-node cluster. This 2nd node has exact same hardware spec(Dell Poweredge R720) with an exception that it’s running on a single Xeon CPU and 16GB of RAM compared to the 1st node that runs on dual Xeon CPU with 64GB of RAM.

    Now when I tried to install macOS catalina on the 2nd node, i get stuck to the point where it’s booting on to macOS installation recovery.

    Progress bar goes to about 80% before the VM reboots again back to clover. It feels like it was going to load the installation recovery but it just decide not to at the very last minute.

    I had no issues with the 1st node which had the same exact hardware and firmware in fact other than the number of CPU and RAM installed.

    Any advice on how to proceed?

      1. dang this is embarrassing, i checked my vm conf and noticed the osk is empty, i swear i thought i copied the config from my other vm.

        macOS installation loads fine now.

        Thank you!!

  63. I am running proxmox 6, I have couple questions. 1st mojave or catalina is better on Proxmox 6? And can I use this instruction to install mojave? What would happen to the Mac that I retrieve the OSK Key? Would it interrupt how I update that machine?


    1. Mojave and Catalina run identically on Proxmox 6, neither has an advantage. You’d want Mojave if you need compatibility for old 32-bit applications in macOS.

      These instructions should work fine for Mojave.

      Every mac shares the exact same OSK so using the OSK from a mac doesn’t have any effect on it.

    1. The VM has display: vmware set? Try starting the VM on the command line (qm start 1xx), you can see extra error messages this way.

      1. I did that already, no error messages. here is my syslog

        “Mar 5 08:42:17 pve qm[23451]: starting task UPID:pve:00005B9C:000A4B19:5E6101B9:qmstart:115:root@pam:
        Mar 5 08:42:17 pve qm[23452]: start VM 115: UPID:pve:00005B9C:000A4B19:5E6101B9:qmstart:115:root@pam:
        Mar 5 08:42:17 pve systemd[1]: Started 115.scope.
        Mar 5 08:42:17 pve qm[23451]: end task UPID:pve:00005B9C:000A4B19:5E6101B9:qmstart:115:root@pam: OK
        Mar 5 08:42:54 pve pvedaemon[23248]: starting task UPID:pve:00005C21:000A5990:5E6101DE:vncproxy:115:root@pam:
        Mar 5 08:42:54 pve pvedaemon[23585]: starting vnc proxy UPID:pve:00005C21:000A5990:5E6101DE:vncproxy:115:root@pam:
        Mar 5 08:43:00 pve systemd[1]: Starting Proxmox VE replication runner…
        Mar 5 08:43:00 pve systemd[1]: pvesr.service: Succeeded.
        Mar 5 08:43:00 pve systemd[1]: Started Proxmox VE replication runner.

  64. Update: I was able to fix the above issue with the help of the proxmox 5 version. I changed the disk that the efi partition was using. I am now installing, will keep you posted.


  65. Hey there, nice tutorial. I have tried this on two systems now and the progress bar gets about 2/3 of the way across and it halts and reboots. Verbose shows the 2nd to last line is “** AppleSMBusPCI::start failed to get acpi path for provider”. The last line before reboot happens really fast and I can’t capture it. The same error shows on both systems. Both are prox 6.1. One is i5-6600, other is E5-2603v4. conf is:
    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”stuff_here” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    balloon: 0
    bios: ovmf
    boot: cdn
    bootdisk: ide2
    cores: 4
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: local-zfs:vm-114-disk-0,size=128K
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2096736K
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe
    machine: q35
    memory: 4096
    name: catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=AE:87:1C:6A:9F:4E,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: local:114/vm-114-disk-0.raw,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G,ssd=1
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=858241c8-ce30-4cff-89ad-0a3bdfbece77
    sockets: 1
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: 149ac23a-d7e6-4c7e-81af-59a49d29560c

    I installed the EDK firmware as follows:
    root@prox-1u:~/pve-edk2-firmware# dpkg -i pve-edk2-firmware_*.deb
    (Reading database … 51402 files and directories currently installed.)
    Preparing to unpack pve-edk2-firmware_2.20191127-1_all.deb …
    Unpacking pve-edk2-firmware (2.20191127-1) over (2.20191002-1) …
    Setting up pve-edk2-firmware (2.20191127-1) …

    What am I doing wrong here? Many others don’t have any issues.


    1. Try starting your VM from the terminal using “qm start 1xx” and see if you get any warnings printed on startup. I’m betting you’re getting a warning about your OSK – double check that the (c) in the OSK hasn’t been converted into a copyright symbol by your text editor, and the quotes are not curly quotes.

      1. I manually retyped the OSK when I read another comment that said it was possible. Starting via bash results in no errors:

        root@prox-1u:~/pve-edk2-firmware# qm start 114

        1. Try entering that again, using emacs or nano (definitely not macOS TextEdit because it loves to mangle text). This really seems like the fault that a bad OSK generates. Post the OSK you’re using (I’ll edit it out of your comment afterwards)

  66. Well I did manage to capture the next (last?) two lines before the reboot if this helps at all:
    timestamp iMac.local[1] (org.ntp.sntp.205) : Service exited with abnormal code: 1
    ACPI_SMC_PlatformPlugin::start – waitForService(resourceMatching(AppleIntelCPUPowerManagement) timed out

    …and as I was typing that, the progress bar went across the screen to 100%. I had a capital ‘O’ as the first letter instead of lowercase ‘o’.

    You were right!

    Thanks for your help. Hopefully I’ll be able to get the rest of the install done without issue.

  67. Hi, I saw you say on Reddit that you may not recommend macOS on Proxmox for audio production, because timing/latency is a concern and your audio software may be fighting for cores that it doesn’t know is already being used for something else. But what if it is the only VM running? Then it just comes down to normal macOS CPU utilization, right?

    Just need to know before I jump in. Low-latency audio production is my main goal with my rig, but I’ll only be running one VM at a time when I’m doing audio production.

    Thanks in advance.

    1. >But what if it is the only VM running? Then it just comes down to normal macOS CPU utilization, right?

      The host is still running threads of its own. Even apart from the normal Linux operating system threads, the host will be running threads specifically to service guest disk IO.

      If I run heavy enough tasks on the host / other VMs (e.g. CPU intense VMs or large file copy/moves on the host), then macOS sees such large timegaps in execution that it actually triggers timeouts in its hardware drivers (e.g. timeouts for time-since-last-device-reply), and my PCIe-passthrough’d USB controllers crash and need their devices to be replugged to be re-enumerated.

      Even with a quiet host, some macOS audio programs (Clementine, iTunes) struggle to deliver audio consistently regardless of selected buffer sizes (e.g. 2000ms), and I get gaps and pops in the audio. That’s to a USB DAC connected to a PCIe-passthrough’d USB controller. Chrome does manage to deliver audio mostly fine, but Chrome will buffer audio out the wazoo.

      I think this is caused by the fact that the host schedules the guest’s threads to host cores without knowing anything about the priority level of the guest thread that is currently executing. So even if the guest’s audio player is set to realtime priority, it can still be pre-empted by a guest Chrome tab that ended up being scheduled to the same host core.

      You can likely improve latency a lot by using thread pinning and core reservation features (cpuset) that keep host threads away from the guest’s cores completely, and prevent guest threads from migrating between host cores. Proxmox doesn’t offer this out of the box, but you can achieve it by adding a bunch of options to your VM “args” and adding VM start scripts. There is a lot of documentation about this out there for QEMU because people want low, consistent latency for gaming:

      I would definitely plan to use a PCIe NVMe disk for the guest, so that you can give the whole disk directly to the guest using PCIe passthrough and the host doesn’t need to get involved for guest disk IO at all (and the same for USB controllers). It’s probably easiest to avoid a NUMA host system (multi-socket Xeon, some of the new AMD lines) so you don’t have to deal with that mess too.

      If you enjoy playing around and troubleshooting this stuff then give it a go, you can always buy an old Mac Mini if it doesn’t work out.

      1. I wasn’t sure if you meant the Clover drive or the installer drive, so here’s both:
        ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=9328M
        ide2: local:iso/clover-r5070.iso,cache=unsafe,size=256M


  68. Hi Nicholas,
    Thanks for a brilliant how to, worked like a charm. The only problem I have, is that the Catalina does not see my iPhone, I did some USB through pass, but I cannot see the iPhone, see below

    root@proxmox:/# qm monitor 100
    Entering Qemu Monitor for VM 100 - type 'help' for help
    qm> info usbhost
    Bus 1, Addr 123, Port 1.6.4, Speed 480 Mb/s
    Class 00: USB device 05ac:12a8, iPhone
    Bus 1, Addr 110, Port 1.6.3, Speed 480 Mb/s
    Class 00: USB device 0bda:8153, USB 10/100/1000 LAN
    qm> ^C
    root@proxmox:/# qm set 100 -usb0 host=05ac:12a8
    update VM 100: -usb0 host=05ac:12a8
    root@proxmox:/# cat /etc/pve/qemu-server/100.conf
    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk="..." -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    balloon: 0
    bios: ovmf
    boot: cdn
    bootdisk: sata0
    cores: 4
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-1,size=128K
    machine: q35
    memory: 4096
    name: catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=DA:70:05:44:6B:67,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G,ssd=1
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=e8632ea1-8627-4188-9102-14d3cc371913
    sockets: 1
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: 34b8205d-055d-46df-8d0e-784f20011fd4

    usb0: host=05ac:12a8

    After Catalina reboot

    root@proxmox:/# cat /etc/pve/qemu-server/100.conf
    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk="..." -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    balloon: 0
    bios: ovmf
    boot: cdn
    bootdisk: sata0
    cores: 4
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-1,size=128K
    machine: q35
    memory: 4096
    name: catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=DA:70:05:44:6B:67,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: local-lvm:vm-100-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G,ssd=1
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=e8632ea1-8627-4188-9102-14d3cc371913
    sockets: 1
    usb0: host=05ac:12a8
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: 34b8205d-055d-46df-8d0e-784f20011fd4

    And when I log into Catalina and try to see the IPhone

    diginetiot@DiginetotsiMac2 ~ % idevice_id -l
    diginetiot@DiginetotsiMac2 ~ %

    When the VM reboots, I can hear the indication that the phone goes off charge and on charge, so the charging part works but not the through pass. Any ideas please?

    1. Note that with QEMU USB passthrough, the device must already be plugged in before the guest starts, and if you unplug the device you have to shut down the guest to plug it in and have it recognise it again (it’s really, really annoying). It’s also not super compatible with all devices.

      Check About this Mac… -> System Report button, and check the USB page, it has more detail about connected devices and your iPhone might appear there.

      When I plug in my Android phone it asks me what USB mode I want to use (MTP / mass-storage / charging), and it could be that during this process the device’s USB ID changes as it re-enumerates. If the iPhone does something similar (“would you like to give permission to use this Mac?”), that would cause it to disconnect from your guest. You may be able to work around that by passing your USB port by its port index instead, like so:

      usb0: host=1-1.6.4

      If your machine has a spare USB host controller, it’s compatible with macOS, and it’s in a reasonable IOMMU group, you could use PCIe passthrough to pass the entire controller through instead. That’s the approach that I use:

      The bonus is that you can freely plug and unplug devices from the controller without rebooting the guest, and compatibility and performance is much improved.

      1. Thanks Nick for the tips using iPhone with PCIe passthrough. Following your post, simply choose a pci device for USB hub in Proxmox to pass it to my macOS, it works like a charm. Really helpful to be able to backup my iPhone.

    1. This happens if your Clover configured resolution does not match the resolution set in the OVMF settings. Make sure you understood the note about being required to restart the VM once on every cold start for the resolution change to be applied.

  69. So the next 2 Problems 🙁

    1) I successfully passed through a RX 590 BUT: The boot screen of clover (grey) just appears on the virtual console. The monitor just shows the proxmox startup screen and stucks there.

    2) On the clover boot screen the mouse pointer doesn‘t work – After the boot everything works as intended (USB mouse passed through)

    3) I also activated Filevault and just can use the virtual console keyboard to put the passphrase. The passed through USB keyboard doesn‘t work. I read that I probably need to load another driver – do you have Filevault activated and probably help out here?

    1. 1) Disable the virtual graphics by setting “vga: none” in your VM config. While you’re there, make sure you have ,x-vga=1 in your hostpci0 line.

      2) Does Clover even support a mouse? Keyboard seems preferable here.

      3) I’ve activated Filevault on a VM but only tried it with the virtual console’s USB keyboard, which worked fine. You may need to add some UEFI drivers to your Clover image, but I don’t know which ones you need.

  70. Hi Nicholas,
    it seems clover r5107 is not working well
    in OVMF bios setting I see Unset for initial resolution.

    Any advice for this?
    Is it a way to repack a standard clover release in a format compatible with Proxmox iso/img format?
    thank you

      1. I don’t understand what you mean by “unset” for the resolution, what’s the actual problem you’re facing here?

  71. I am using an UHD in config I have 3840×2160 set
    when I enter in proxmox bios via F2 to pair OVMF resolution I have Unset for preferred resolution and 3840×2160 where I can choice other resolution
    This happen in Catalina.
    In high Sierra I see

    1. I doubt this menu is the cause of any problems.

      Did you edit the Clover config.plist file to change its resolution to match OVMF? You can do that from within the UEFI Shell option of Clover.

  72. I’m getting the error that somebody else here in replies also got, “Guest has not initialized the display (yet)”.

    I tried manually starting it (qm start) and disabled the AVX/AES flags that it was complaining about.

    However, it still doesn’t boot. Could you have any idea on what is causing this?

    1. Does it print any other warnings?

      Missing AVX/AES is fine, it’ll just ignore that and continue. But SSE4.2 is critical.

      1. Nothing else, after I removed the AVX/AES. I removed the xsave and xsaveopt as well (warnings displayed about them too). Are they essential?

        The CPU in question is Xeon W3503, and it supports SSE4.2.

        1. Catalina hangs during boot if I remove xsave/xsaveopt, so I think you’re out of luck with your CPU there. EDIT: Apparently this is only a problem if the AVX feature is present, so remove that if it’s there.

          However, it won’t cause the video issue you’re seeing. Can you even enter the guest UEFI settings by hitting F2 at the start of guest boot? If not this doesn’t seem like a Clover or macOS problem, it’d have to be a pve-edk2-firmware problem, or something weird with the VM config. Post your VM config too.

      1. I have built opencore 0.57 release with OC EFI maker (
        Add a SSDT usefull for my nvidia to have hdmi/DP audio
        Used sample.plist as is.
        Only renamed
        Later I will upload my config if it can be useful

    1. Oh wow – this would be amazing if it works, and we could write a guide for it =).

      Fabio – do you any list of instructions you used to set it up?

      Did you still have to do any of the steps in this guide?

      echo “options kvm ignore_msrs=Y” >> /etc/modprobe.d/kvm.conf && update-initramfs -k all -u

      And the patched OVMF packages?

      Nicholas – do you have any idea how to do it this way?

      1. Hi Victor
        If you have a proxmox ve Osx vm booting it is pretty simple
        I have used OC efi maker to build a 057 opencore release with efi driver and basic kext
        I have modified sample.plist to add only my language and a ssdt inuse for hdmi/dp audio
        Then i have inserted in my ssd efi boot disk

        1. Hi Fabio,

          I’m sorry, but I’m still a bit confused =(.

          Is there any chance you can provide slightly more detailed instructions or steps?

          Do you essentially create a new ISO file and use that instead of clover.iso? Any other changes to the above steps?

          Also – do you mean this OC EFI Maker?

          If I go to that page, it says:

          > Sorry, you aren’t permitted to download this file.


          1. Hi Victor
            to create a new ISO file from scratch you have to adapt to your need kholia script
            I did in more simple way. If you have an OSX booting in proxmox you can modify Your EFI simply as you do in a non virtual environment..ISO file you have uploaded previously will be changed consequently

  73. Guide for now is pretty complete
    Many great info found in nick’s blog
    I have done that guide to have my amd 3970x and Nvidia Titan Xp fully working and with all features i can
    I have no linux experience at all 🙂
    Proxmox and high sierra guide helped a lot to my basic doubts
    Now fighting with a pretty big of OVMF bios problem

    1. Problem I have had with OVMF bios are gone now.
      Reverted to a not patched deb file solve different problem for me.
      Now correct boot order is maintained also without having no Qemu drive in VM

  74. Hi,

    This is a great and very easy guide to use. Everything works well for me right up until the first reboot during the installation process.

    Clover boots up and I see three options. The prebooter is automatically selected and it starts booting from there. Once the apple logo shows up, it starts loading but shortly stops afterwards and stays there for hours.

    Running it in verbose mode, it gets stuck at “Initialized /dev/rdisk5 as a 5 MB case-insensitive HFS Plus Volume”. (Link w/ video

    Disk is erased/formatted as AFPS. Same problem whether the VM it is installed onto SSD or HDD.

    I’ve tried different versions of Catalina as well as Mojave and High Sierra – same exact problem on all of those installations.

    And I’ve tried the current Proxmox version (6.1) as well as the older 6.0 version and both have ended in the same problem.

    I’ve been trying to figure this out for 5 days now w/o any success.

    I’ve found some forums/threads with others having similar issues during installation on hackintoshes, but with varied (and not always successful) solutions (for example switching SATA ports of a SSD or changing installation media from USB 3.0 to 2.0).

    My setup is a Dell Precision T7400 workstation running 2x Xeon 5482 processors and a Nvidia Quadro FX 580 graphics card.
    My VM configuration file:

    args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=”*key_is_entered_correctly*” -smbios type=2 -cpu Penryn,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+intsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
    balloon: 0
    bios: ovmf
    bootdisk: ide2
    cores: 4
    cpu: Penryn
    efidisk0: macOS:vm-100-disk-1,size=128K
    ide0: local:iso/Catalina-installer.iso,cache=unsafe,size=2096996K
    ide2: local:iso/clover-r5107.iso,cache=unsafe
    machine: q35
    memory: 4096
    name: catalina
    net0: vmxnet3=xx:xx:xx:xx:xx:xx,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
    numa: 0
    ostype: other
    sata0: macOS:vm-100-disk-2,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G,ssd=1
    scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
    smbios1: uuid=xxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxx
    sockets: 1
    vga: vmware
    vmgenid: xxxxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxx-xxxxxxxxxxx

    I’d appreciate any insights and help :). Let me know if there is anything else I need to provide.


    1. I suspect you’re getting bitten by a lack of xsave/xsaveopt instructions on your CPU – are you getting warned about those if you run “qm start 100”?

      If I remove xsave/xsaveopt from my VM it hangs during boot as well.

  75. Nick,

    The OpenCore project just made the front page of HackerNews – and there’s some interesting discussions:

    One of the posters there also mentioned this guide for KVM and OpenCore:

    I’m still not clear how to download their repo and put it under the EFI disk in Proxmox for your guide – any tips?

    Do you think this is a viable alternative to Clover?


  76. Hi,

    Made a fresh install as per this guide. Everything boots fine to the console, but as soon as I pass the 5700XT the vm will not boot. The progress bar will stop near the end. Nothing else is passed through except for the NVME. Latest Lilu, WEG and AppleALC installed . I also set agdpmod=pikera.
    Any help is greatly appreciated.

    1. Try setting SMBIOS to iMac 14,2 if you haven’t already (e.g. using Clover Configurator), it improved GPU compatibility for me. It can also improve compatibility to disable the emulated video (vga: none) when using passthrough.

      1. Thanks for the help.
        I tried iMac 14,2 as well as iMac Pro 1,1 and Mac Pro 7,1 with no luck. I also did set vga=none when I passed through the gpu. For some reason it will not finish booting.
        Any other tips would be greatly appreaciated.

      2. Update:
        I followed your new guide using OpenCore and now I can pass through the gpu!
        If only I could fix the AMD reset bug too.

        1. Ah, I was just about to suggest that to you myself, I’m currently testing OpenCore passthrough on my own setup and it’s going well so far.

          Most likely it fixed it for you because I’ve bundled the WhateverGreen kext in with my OpenCore image, and that fixes a bunch of graphics card issues.

          Interestingly one person I talked to has a Vega 64, which should be affected by the reset issue, but even with an unpatched Proxmox kernel they are able to seamlessly pass it between their Windows and Mac VMs! It has to be magic because I can’t think of any other explanation.

  77. Thanks for the help.
    I tried iMac 14,2 iMac Pro 1,1 and Mac Pro 7,1 all with no luck. I also did set vga=none when passing through.

  78. Hi there,

    I am currently following your tutorial and arriving at this step:


    the result is unexpectedly:


    Can someone help please? I am sure this is not the correct and expected result 🙂

  79. Does anybody have experiences with USB-Sound Passthrough? I bought a cheap USB Media Soundcard from amazon which runs on my MacBook without any issues. When I pass through the device through the webinterface I get stuttering sounds and lags.

    Any ideas?


  80. I saw in your config you set vga to none if you passthrough your graphic. If i do this i get a failure and my system don‘t boot. If i let vmware graphics in i see my other graphic card with „3“ monitors 2 i installed and one of vmware graphic.
    Any Idea how to fix this ?

  81. Dear Nick,

    Thanks for your tutorial.

    When I try to start VM it stops immediately and displays:

    kvm: -cpu: requires an argument

    TASK ERROR: start failed: QEMU exited with code 1

    Using: pve-manager/6.2-4/9824574a (running kernel: 5.4.41-1-pve)

    Run your Proxmox 5 OVMF – should I of used the Version 6 OVMF?

    Best Wishes

    1. Yes you’ll want to use the correct OVMF or you’ll get nowhere.

      Show your args line from your VM config, sounds like you have a typo in the -cpu argument.

      1. args: -device isa-applesmc,osk=… -smbios type=2 -cpu
        eck -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2
        balloon: 0
        bios: ovmf
        boot: cdn
        bootdisk: ide2
        cores: 4
        cpu: Penryn
        efidisk0: local-zfs:vm-104-disk-1,size=128K
        ide0: pool1-iso:iso/clover-r4920.iso,cache=unsafe,size=256M
        ide2: pool1-iso:iso/Catalina-installer.iso.img,cache=unsafe,size=2096496K
        machine: q35
        memory: 4096
        name: Catalina
        net0: vmxnet3=82:DC:CB:C4:C4:F9,bridge=vmbr0,firewall=1
        numa: 0
        ostype: other
        sata0: local-zfs:vm-104-disk-0,cache=unsafe,discard=on,size=64G,ssd=1
        scsihw: virtio-scsi-pci
        smbios1: uuid=7be44331-05ce-48d4-8702-7cb0a31a99ad
        sockets: 1
        vga: vmware
        vmgenid: da4b9c8a-b373-451f-b71f-d46e724bade2

      2. Right, I’ve got it to boot, but with issues.

        On Proxmox screen it stops and gives the error:

        BdsDxe: failed to load Boot0001………

        I’ve found that choosing another entry from the Boot Manager menu allows Clover to start, but not always the same option boots Clover.

        When I have got it working, I’ve got Catalina installed and got as far as being able to use Safari and bring up Youtube.

        Is there anyway I can use the Keyboard on my MacBook Air (MBA’s trackpad functions with no-VNC) to control Catalina VM with no-VNC? I have been using the host’s keyboard, but its inconvenient.

        Thanks for the tip with -cpu argument on the args line and using the correct OVMF – Doh!

        Going back into the .conf file,

        All of this:

        ,kvm=on,vendor=GenuineIntel,+kvm_pv_unhalt,+kvm_pv_eoi,+invtsc,vmware-cpuid-freq=on,+pcid,+ssse3,+sse4.2,+popcnt,+avx,+aes,+xsave,+xsaveopt,check -device usb-kbd,bus=ehci.0,port=2

        has disappeared from the .conf file.

        Any ideas why I’m getting what I’m getting?

        Cheers David

        1. You had linebreaks in the middle of your args line, it must all be on one line. (That’s why it was complaining that -cpu didn’t have an argument, and why the subsequent lines are being dropped from your config)

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